Through time people learn the best possible
way to make use of what their environment and surroundings
have to offer.
People adapt to changing climates and seasonally available
foods. Often people must learn to live and share with
others. These people are adapting.
A person who studies the art and science of mixing
medicines; also known in modern times as a pharmacist.
sites Any place where evidence of past
human life is found.
Sites can range in size from small locations of artifacts
to entire villages and cities. Many of New Brunswicks
archaeological sites are protected under the Historic
Sites Protection Act.
The detailed study of material evidence left
behind in the earth by people who lived in the far
A region along the western end of the border between
Spain and France.
North America Act An act passed by
the British Parliament in 1867, creating the Dominion
A type of treaty which regulates church affairs, signed
between the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and
exchange systems A way of trading or exchanging
items or goods between groups of people who have different
cultural backgrounds (language and customs) and who
most often live in different lands or regions.
influences A people may change some aspect
of their way of life as a result of having come in
contact with another group whose ideas or ways are
different. For example, a group that changes the way
they usually decorate their pottery as a result of
having seen it done differently by another group,
are said to have been culturally influenced.
Members of a secret Irish revolutionary society
formed to win independence from Great Britain.
Cumberland Originally a French fort, known
as Fort Beauséjour, it was captured by the British
in 1755 and renamed Fort Cumberland.
Frederick A British fort established at
the mouth of the river St. John in 1758.
Louisbourg The large French fort first established
on Île Royale (Cape Breton Island) in 1719 and destroyed
by the British in 1758.
The hunting of birds.
A person who studies the earths surface.
The study of the earth and its formation.
Chief The Head of State for the Mikmaq
Council The traditional form of government
for the Mikmaq Nation, uniting the seven districts
of Mikmaki. Known in Mikmaq as the Sante Mawiomi
(zahn-THE mah-wee-OH-mee), the Grand Council provides
advice and defends national territory.
Railway A railway connecting the Dominion
of Canada, first established between Truro, Nova Scotia
and Rivière du Loup, Québec in 1876, and passing through
Moncton and central New Brunswick. This railway line
later became known as the Canadian National Railway.
arbitration The hearing and determining
of a dispute between countries, by a person or persons
chosen or agreed to by the countries involved.
Islands Channel Islands belonging to Great
Britain, located in the English Channel between France
(kehn-NAH-beck) Kennebec is the traditional name
for a river located in Maine. The people who have
traditionally lived there call themselves Kennebecs
meaning The People of the River.
Georges War (1744 1748) The war between
France and Great Britain, known in Europe as the War
of the Austrian Succession.
(KLOOS-kahb) For Wabanuwok, the most important person
in the beginning of time was Koluskap. He is the traditional
ancestor of all Wabanuwok, who once lived in Wabanahkik,
but now lives in a faraway place. The stories of Koluskap
are creation stories. They contain teachings, passed
down through thousands of generations, about the world
in the beginning and the people who lived here.
The owner of a seigniory, or large grant of land.
A city in India, located on the Bay of Bengal.
(meh-deh-b-NAH-ghee-agh) The traditional name for
the ancient village known in modern times as Red Bank,
located on the Northwest Miramichi River in northeastern
(meeg-MAH-geeg) The territory of the Mikmaq. This
includes the Gaspé peninsula of Quebec, northern and
eastern New Brunswick, all of Nova Scotia, Prince
Edward Island, and the island of Newfoundland.
People holding a distinction of superior rank in
society, usually inherited from past generations.
Valley The region of the Ohio River, located
in central United States.
traditions The passing along of knowledge,
from one generation to the next, by word of mouth.
Oral traditions is also the name given to the body
of knowledge passed on in this way.
A group of people given authority by a Countys
peace officer to assist in preserving the peace.
The officers and men of privately owned ships hired
by a warring nation to capture enemy ships.
adaptation The way in which people of a
certain region have learned to know, appreciate and
use that regions natural resources (fish, game, plants,
minerals etc.) for their benefit so that they may
live and prosper.
Government A democratic system of government
by which Council officials, who control the governments
budget, are elected by the people, rather than appointed
by the Lieutenant-Governor.
Charter An official document signed by the
Proclamation - A declaration made by a King
Proclamation of 1763 A declaration made
by the King George III of England, establishing the
boundaries and land rights of British North America.
(SA-ga-maw)A Mikmaq word, meaning chief. In the
Wabanahki tradition, chiefs are leaders, respected
for their wisdom of experience, who provide advice.
Decisions affecting a First Nation community are made
by consensus, after everyone has had an opportunity
to speak. Chiefs are not like a King in the European
The right of a people to create and operate their
own form of government.
Years War (1756 1763) The final war between
France and Great Britain, which ended with the signing
of the Treaty of Paris in 1763 giving all of North
America to Great Britain, except New Orleans and the
small islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon.
system An agricultural system whereby workers
live on a portion of land, and provide services to
a landlord, in return for his protecting them.
Large portions of land belonging to a Seignior or
Lord, and occupied by his workers.
The power of independent self-government.
Tax An act passed by the British Parliament
in 1765 to tax certain transactions and printed items
in the American colonies.
A peoples way of life, practiced over a long period
of Paris The agreement between France and
Great Britain, signed in 1763, which ended the Seven
Years War and gave all of North America to Great Britain,
except New Orleans and the small islands of St. Pierre
of Utrecht An agreement between Great Britain
and France, signed in 1713, which ended the War of
the Spanish Succession. Territory in Acadia (Nova
Scotia) was given to Great Britain, while ownership
of lands north of the Bay of Fundy (New Brunswick)
remained in dispute.
of Versailles Also known as the Treaty of
Paris. An agreement between Great Britain and the
United States of America, signed in 1783, which ended
the American Revolution and recognized the independence
of the United States.
(wah-bah-NAH-keek) A traditional First Nation
word, meaning The Land of the Dawn. The
people who live in Wabanahkik include Maliseets (Wolastoqiyik),
Mikmaqs, and Passamaquoddy.
The territory of Wabanahkik covers the regions of
present-day New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova
Scotia, Newfoundland, Maine, and parts of Quebec,
New Hampshire and Vermont.
Confederacy (wah-bah-NAH-kee) A political
alliance established in the early 1700s by Maliseet,
Mikmaq, Passamaquoddy, Penobscot, and Abenaki leaders.
(wah-BAH-new-wok) The people of Wabanahkik.
belt (WAUH-pum) In the Wabanahki tradition,
shell beads were strung together and woven into belts,
as a written document to record an important law,
agreement, or event.
(w-lahs-t-GWEE-yook) The people of the Wolastoq
(w-lahs-tg). Wolastoq is the original name for
the river St. John; and the people who have traditionally
lived there call themselves Wolastoqiyik meaning,
The People of the River. In history, Wolastoqiyik
have also been known as Maliseets.
(wool-as-took-WAY) This word is used as an
adjective, referring to objects, traditions, or ideas
belonging to Wolastoqiyik.