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Glossary

 

Glossary

A

Adapting – Through time people learn the best possible way to make use of what their environment and surroundings have to offer. People adapt to changing climates and seasonally available foods. Often people must learn to live and share with others. These people are adapting.

Apothecary – A person who studies the art and science of mixing medicines; also known in modern times as a pharmacist.

Archaeological sites – Any place where evidence of past human life is found. Sites can range in size from small locations of artifacts to entire villages and cities. Many of New Brunswick’s archaeological sites are protected under the Historic Sites Protection Act.

Archaeology – The detailed study of material evidence left behind in the earth by people who lived in the far past.

 
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B

Basque – A region along the western end of the border between Spain and France.

British North America Act – An act passed by the British Parliament in 1867, creating the Dominion of Canada

 
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C

Concordat– A type of treaty which regulates church affairs, signed between the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and a government.

Cross-cultural exchange systems – A way of trading or exchanging items or goods between groups of people who have different cultural backgrounds (language and customs) and who most often live in different lands or regions.

Cultural influences – A people may change some aspect of their way of life as a result of having come in contact with another group whose ideas or ways are different. For example, a group that changes the way they usually decorate their pottery as a result of having seen it done differently by another group, are said to have been culturally influenced.

 
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F

Fenians – Members of a secret Irish revolutionary society formed to win independence from Great Britain.

Fort Cumberland – Originally a French fort, known as Fort Beauséjour, it was captured by the British in 1755 and renamed Fort Cumberland.

Fort Frederick – A British fort established at the mouth of the river St. John in 1758.

Fortress Louisbourg – The large French fort first established on Île Royale (Cape Breton Island) in 1719 and destroyed by the British in 1758.

Fowling – The hunting of birds.

 
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G

Geographer – A person who studies the earth’s surface.

Geology – The study of the earth and its formation.

Grand Chief – The Head of State for the Mi’kmaq Grand Council

Grand Council – The traditional form of government for the Mi’kmaq Nation, uniting the seven districts of Mi’kma’ki. Known in Mi’kmaq as the Sante’ Mawiomi (zahn-THE mah-wee-OH-mee), the Grand Council provides advice and defends national territory.

 
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I

Inter-Colonial Railway – A railway connecting the Dominion of Canada, first established between Truro, Nova Scotia and Rivière du Loup, Québec in 1876, and passing through Moncton and central New Brunswick. This railway line later became known as the Canadian National Railway.

International arbitration – The hearing and determining of a dispute between countries, by a person or persons chosen or agreed to by the countries involved.

 
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J

Jersey Islands – Channel Islands belonging to Great Britain, located in the English Channel between France and England.

 
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K

Kennebecs – (kehn-NAH-beck) Kennebec is the traditional name for a river located in Maine. The people who have traditionally lived there call themselves “Kennebecs” – meaning “The People of the River”.

King George’s War – (1744 – 1748) The war between France and Great Britain, known in Europe as the War of the Austrian Succession.

Koluskap – (KLOOS-kahb) For Wabanuwok, the most important person in the beginning of time was Koluskap. He is the traditional ancestor of all Wabanuwok, who once lived in Wabanahkik, but now lives in a faraway place. The stories of Koluskap are creation stories. They contain teachings, passed down through thousands of generations, about the world in the beginning and the people who lived here.

 
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L

Landlord – The owner of a seigniory, or large grant of land.

 
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M

Madras – A city in India, located on the Bay of Bengal.

Metepenagiag – (meh-deh-b’-NAH-ghee-agh) The traditional name for the ancient village known in modern times as Red Bank, located on the Northwest Miramichi River in northeastern New Brunswick.

Mi’ma’ki – (meeg-MAH-geeg) The territory of the Mi’kmaq. This includes the Gaspé peninsula of Quebec, northern and eastern New Brunswick, all of Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and the island of Newfoundland.

 
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N

Nobles – People holding a distinction of superior rank in society, usually inherited from past generations.

 
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O

Ohio Valley – The region of the Ohio River, located in central United States.

Oral traditions – The passing along of knowledge, from one generation to the next, by word of mouth. “Oral traditions” is also the name given to the body of knowledge passed on in this way.

 
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P

Posse – A group of people given authority by a County’s peace officer to assist in preserving the peace.

Privateers – The officers and men of privately owned ships hired by a warring nation to capture enemy ships.

 
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R

Regional adaptation – The way in which people of a certain region have learned to know, appreciate and use that region’s natural resources (fish, game, plants, minerals etc.) for their benefit so that they may live and prosper.

Responsible Government – A democratic system of government by which Council officials, who control the government’s budget, are elected by the people, rather than appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor.

Royal Charter – An official document signed by the King.

Royal Proclamation - A declaration made by a King or Queen.

Royal Proclamation of 1763 – A declaration made by the King George III of England, establishing the boundaries and land rights of British North America.

 
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S

Saqamaw – (SA-ga-maw)A Mi’kmaq word, meaning chief. In the Wabanahki tradition, chiefs are leaders, respected for their wisdom of experience, who provide advice. Decisions affecting a First Nation community are made by consensus, after everyone has had an opportunity to speak. Chiefs are not like a King in the European tradition.

Self-government – The right of a people to create and operate their own form of government.

Seven Years War – (1756 – 1763) The final war between France and Great Britain, which ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1763 – giving all of North America to Great Britain, except New Orleans and the small islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon.

Seigniorial system – An agricultural system whereby workers live on a portion of land, and provide services to a landlord, in return for his protecting them.

Seigniories – Large portions of land belonging to a Seignior or Lord, and occupied by his workers.

Sovereignty – The power of independent self-government.

Stamp Tax – An act passed by the British Parliament in 1765 to tax certain transactions and printed items in the American colonies.

 
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T

Traditions – A people’s way of life, practiced over a long period of time.

Treaty of Paris – The agreement between France and Great Britain, signed in 1763, which ended the Seven Years War and gave all of North America to Great Britain, except New Orleans and the small islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon.

Treaty of Utrecht – An agreement between Great Britain and France, signed in 1713, which ended the War of the Spanish Succession. Territory in Acadia (Nova Scotia) was given to Great Britain, while ownership of lands north of the Bay of Fundy (New Brunswick) remained in dispute.

Treaty of Versailles – Also known as the Treaty of Paris. An agreement between Great Britain and the United States of America, signed in 1783, which ended the American Revolution and recognized the independence of the United States.

 
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W

Wabanahkik – (wah-bah-NAH-keek) A traditional First Nation word, meaning “The Land of the Dawn”. The people who live in Wabanahkik include Maliseets (Wolastoqiyik), Mi’kmaqs, and Passamaquoddy. The territory of Wabanahkik covers the regions of present-day New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Maine, and parts of Quebec, New Hampshire and Vermont.

Wabanahki Confederacy – (wah-bah-NAH-kee) A political alliance established in the early 1700’s by Maliseet, Mi’kmaq, Passamaquoddy, Penobscot, and Abenaki leaders.

Wabanuwok – (wah-BAH-new-wok) The people of Wabanahkik.

Wampum belt – (WAUH-pum) In the Wabanahki tradition, shell beads were strung together and woven into belts, as a written document to record an important law, agreement, or event.

Wolastoqiyik – (w’-lahs-t’-GWEE-yook) The people of the Wolastoq (w’-lahs-t’g). “Wolastoq” is the original name for the river St. John; and the people who have traditionally lived there call themselves “Wolastoqiyik” – meaning, “The People of the River”. In history, Wolastoqiyik have also been known as Maliseets.

Wolastoqew – (wool-as-took-WAY) This word is used as an adjective, referring to objects, traditions, or ideas belonging to Wolastoqiyik.

 
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